Plant Index


 
 
 
 

Echinacea purpurea

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

eastern purple coneflower

Synonym(s): Brauneria purpurea, Echinacea purpurea var. arkansana, Rudbeckia purpurea
Cultivar(s): Kim's Knee-High, Lucky Star
Echinacea purpurea (Eastern Purple Coneflower)
Image ID: 12451
Image by: Cressler, Alan M.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: ECPU
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Echinacea purpurea
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-02-11

CULTIVAR INDEX

Cult_id Cultivar_name Action
1682 Kim's Knee-High View
147 Lucky Star View

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: ECHIN
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Echinacea
GENUS AUTHORITY: Moench
GENUS COMMON: Purple coneflower
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of 4-9 species, herbs, endemic to e. and c. North America. There has been considerable medicinal use of extracts from many of the species, and collection of plants from the wild to meet the demand of the herbal trade has extirpated many populations, particularly in c. United States. Foster (1991) presents a lengthy and detailed discussion of medicinal uses of Echinacea, along with considerable information on the biology, conservation needs, taxonomy, and nomenclatural history of the genus. Binns, Baum, & Arnason (2002) provide no rationale for their approach of recognizing the same number of taxa as McGregor, but treating them as 4 species and 10 varieties; the entities seem to be distinct at the specific level.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Urbatsch, Neubig, and Cox in FNA (2006c); Baskin, Snyder, & Baskin (1993)=Z; Foster (1991)=Y; Cronquist (1980)=SE; Binns, Baum, and Arnason (2002)=X; McKeown (1999); Gaddy (1991); McGregor (1968).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ASTERA
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Asteraceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Dumortier 1822 or COMPOSITAE Giseke 1792
FAMILY COMMON: Aster Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 1500-1700 genera and 20,000-25,000 species, shrubs, herbs, trees, and vines, cosmopolitan in distribution.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Cronquist (1980)=SE throughout family treatment.

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect perennial of open woodlands and roadsides, sometimes persistent or spread from cultivation.
STEMS: Stems green with purple-brown streaks, occasionally branching, hairy.
LEAVES: Leaves mostly basal, a few alternate on the stem (smaller), oval or lance-shaped with pointed tips, 2-10 in. long, toothed, rough-hairy on both surfaces.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Composite flowers (heads) solitary at stem ends; to 4 in. wide; consisting of 8-21 dark pink to purple, somewhat drooping ray florets encircling the domed center disk composed of many maroon, tubular florets intermixed with orange-brown, spiny bracts.
FRUITS: Fruit an erect, cone-like head of seeds intermixed with spiny bracts.
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 1.5-4 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Mixed
BLOOM TIME: May-Oct
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Pink
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Disturbed, Dry forests, Woods margins
NATIVE RANGE: southeastern & central U.S.

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: A gardener’s favorite, eastern purple coneflower is an excellent choice for the sunny border or meadow garden. The showy flowers have pink petals around a central "cone". Drought-tolerant once established. All parts of this plant are regarded to have properties that stimulate the immune system. Butterflies flock to the flowers for their nectar and goldfinches eat the seeds with gusto. Eastern purple coneflower is a plant that will liven up your garden in many ways!

Bloom Table Text: Purple coneflower is a beautiful and undemanding plant bearing flowerheads composed of drooping, pink rays and dark purple disk flowers. Long grown in flower gardens, this perennial blooms faithfully from midsummer into the fall. The genus name comes from the Greek word, echinos, meaning “hedgehog”. They like neutral, moderately fertile soil and perform well during dry, hot weather. Through most of this century Echinacea has been the most widely used American medicinal plant, valued especially as a cold remedy. Recent research has confirmed its value as an immune system stimulant. Butterflies flock to the flowers for their nectar and goldfinches eat the seeds with gusto.

NCBG Location: Education Center Landscape, Native Perennial Border, Piedmont Habitat, Plant Families Garden

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 3
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
2738 1987-0223 View
3192 1990-0031 View
7520 2000-0280 2000-09-19 View
8863 2011-0027 2011-01-27 1874 View
8887 2011-0026 2011-01-27 1897 View
8954 1991-0257 0000-00-00 1498 View
9011 1995-0377 0000-00-00 1215 View
9370 2021-0033 2021-04-05 0 View
9410 2021-0072 2021-06-29 View
9515 2021-0152 2022-08-23 0 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
1215 HORT 1992-01-01 View
1339 HORT 2006-11-01 Bryan View
1498 HORT 1989-09-17 View
1744 HORT 2005-01-01 Bryan View
1874 HORT 2010-09-04 Gocke View
1897 HORT 2010-09-04 Gocke View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
969 8863 44 NCBG staff 2011-05-10 View
4561 2738 8 NCBG staff 1978-10-01 View
5345 3192 81 NCBG staff 1989-10-01 View
5346 3192 98 NCBG staff 1989-10-01 View
5874 8954 79 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
7711 9011 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
10557 7520 93 NCBG staff 1999-01-01 View
10558 7520 142 NCBG staff 2000-01-01 View
10559 7520 115 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
12589 9370 228 Wait 2020-06-25 View
12590 9370 229 Wait 2020-06-25 View
12591 9370 232 Wait 2020-06-25 View
12592 9370 233 Wait 2020-06-25 View
12723 9410 146 Wenck 2021-05-03 View
13163 0 198 NCBG staff 2022-05-20 View
13207 9515 38 Wait 2021-11-23 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: ECPU
USDA Common Name: Eastern Purple Coneflower
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (I)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CO, CT, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV), CAN (ON)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

2018 Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species of North Carolina

NHP IDS RANKROUNDED S RANKG RANKROUNDED G RANKSTATE STATUSFEDERAL STATUS
19559 S1 S1 G4 G4 SC-V

This information is derived from the 2018 North Carolina Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species.

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Echinacea purpurea
COMMON NAME: Eastern Purple Coneflower
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, FNA, Il, K, Pa, RAB, SE, W, WH3, X, Y; = E. purpurea var. purpurea - G]
PHENOLOGY:
HABITAT: Open woodlands, roadsides, some of the occurrences persistent or spread from cultivation.
COMMENTS: OH, WI, and IA south to FL and TX; introduced more broadly as in ne. United States and ON, the exact limits of the native distribution unclear.
RANGE MAP: Echinacea purpurea.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Asteraceae Dumortier 1822 or COMPOSITAE Giseke 1792 (Aster Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 1500-1700 genera and 20,000-25,000 species, shrubs, herbs, trees, and vines, cosmopolitan in distribution.
REFERENCE: Cronquist (1980)=SE throughout family treatment.
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Echinacea Moench (Purple coneflower)
SUMMARY: A genus of 4-9 species, herbs, endemic to e. and c. North America. There has been considerable medicinal use of extracts from many of the species, and collection of plants from the wild to meet the demand of the herbal trade has extirpated many populations, particularly in c. United States. Foster (1991) presents a lengthy and detailed discussion of medicinal uses of Echinacea, along with considerable information on the biology, conservation needs, taxonomy, and nomenclatural history of the genus. Binns, Baum, & Arnason (2002) provide no rationale for their approach of recognizing the same number of taxa as McGregor, but treating them as 4 species and 10 varieties; the entities seem to be distinct at the specific level.
REFERENCE: Urbatsch, Neubig, and Cox in FNA (2006c); Baskin, Snyder, & Baskin (1993)=Z; Foster (1991)=Y; Cronquist (1980)=SE; Binns, Baum, and Arnason (2002)=X; McKeown (1999); Gaddy (1991); McGregor (1968).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Echinacea purpurea in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Echinacea purpurea in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Echinacea purpurea in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Echinacea purpurea in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Echinacea purpurea in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Echinacea purpurea

IMAGE USE RECORDS

ID IMAGE: 12451 - Primary Image FloraQuest Plant Detail Page (Landscape Preferred)
ID IMAGE1: 12453 - Primary Image WOTAS
ID IMAGE2: 0 - Secondary Image WOTAS
ID IMAGE3: 93330 - Primary Image Plant Sale Sign (Landscape Only)
ID IMAGE4: 0 - Primary Image New Plant Sale Label (Portrait Only)

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